Prior to four years of optometry school, doctors of optometry typically complete four years of undergraduate study with extensive course work in a variety of advanced health, science and mathematics courses.

Optometrists are required to complete a four-year post-graduate degree program to earn their doctor of optometry (O.D.) titles. The four-year program includes classroom and clinical training in geometric, physical, physiological and ophthalmic optics, ocular anatomy, ocular disease, ocular myotology, ocular pharmacology, neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of the vision system, color, form, space, movement and vision perception, design and modification of the visual environment, and vision performance and vision screening. Unique to the educational requirements for optometrists is the advanced study of optics, the science of light and vision, and extensive training in lens design, construction, application and fitting.

Curriculums and continuing education are constantly updated to keep up with all new technologies, including lasers and other medical treatments related to eye disorders.

After graduation from an accredited school or college of optometry, optometrists must successfully complete a state board examination to become licensed to practice in a particular state. Optometrists also must undergo continuing education each year to stay current on the latest standards of care. Optometry is one of the only doctoral-level professions to require continuing education in every state for license renewal.